“The Hammer and the Fire” by Henry Marsh
Henry Marsh has just published his fifth major volume of poetry, “A Voyage to
Its principal focus is on the Covenanters. His third volume, “The Guidman’s
Daughter”, began with thinking about Mary Queen of Scots. I intend to review
the new book – just published – in due course. But to whet your appetite I will
post my reviews of Three and Four. The review of “The Guidman’s Daughter” is
already on my blog. Here is my review of the fourth collection, “The Hammer and
John Knox is the subject of the opening section in Henry Marsh’s fourth collection of poems. The hammer and the fire of the title refer, in their first layer of meaning, to the hammers that smashed and the fires that consumed during the violent iconoclasm that accompanied Knox’s Reformation of the 1550s. (In the interest of balance it should be noted that similar “holy bonfires” also raged in Queen Elizabeth’s
England, encouraged by the bishops,
and that most of the image-breaking for which Oliver Cromwell has been blamed happened
before he was born.) We feel the plight of the victims as
Grey friars wept in their sarks
their habits smouldering.
The adjectives of darkness applied to Knox accumulate in poem after poem: the black Knox; small, black-cloaked; with darkness wrapped about him; like a wet crow. In the very first poem in the book, “At the High Kirk, St Giles’” the contrast is made with
light streaming through the east windows.
A dawning that reminds us of the life of Christ.
Poem after poem also captures the violence of Knox’s language, sometimes direct quotation, sometimes refined by the poet’s imagination. But for Marsh we can be sure that the worst is not the abusive language but the narrow intolerance, the “scorching clarity” of a doctrine that leaves no room for mystery or ambiguity, or even for love.
But there is an honest and humane empathy with Knox as well. A different fire consumed his mentor, George Wishart, burnt for heresy; and slaving in a French galley was Not a time for subtlety. In the very short poem In Thrall a sort of kinship is admitted across the centuries:
This wrestling with a wraith.
I suspect, old fellow,
You’re cast in my own shadows.
And all the intense, highly pressurised contexts of Knox’s world are evoked in memorable grimness. Not really an excuse, but at least an explanation. Had things been different
Oh, you might have been
a son of the morning, were it not
for your justified heart. Driven
by the time’s plague – war of heresies.
There is a burning fire on the cover of the book – a photo of the Rosette Nebula. And this leads us on to a second theme of the book, the wonder of scientific discovery. In one of Knox’s debates with Queen Mary (and you may remember that Marsh’s previous volume, The Guidman’s Daughter focussed on her) we hear Renaissance curiosity dismissed:
Nicholas Copernicus, my erse.
But this collection goes on to celebrate the imaginative genius of Johannes Kepler. His mother was threatened with the agony of burning - rehearsal for Hell by a narrow-minded dogma that Knox would have enjoyed (albeit in a Catholic country). But Kepler had the openness of vision that moved mankind’s understanding of the universe forward.
Like magnetism, he thought,
the influence of sun and planet.
The contrast between the life-affirming, questing imagination of the scientist and the cold, restricted narrowness of the preacher is all too apparent.
Admirers of Marsh’s work have always loved his capacity to evoke in very few words the joy and wonder of the natural world. They will not be disappointed here. The poems on Kepler include reactions to the weird landforms of
Like infernal porridge pots, fumaroles
Slurp and burp.
Even greater pleasures are to be found once the focus moves to Darwin – another of Marsh’s heroes – for this in not the Darwin of voyages to the exotic Galapagos but the Darwin who both observed and loved the superficially “ordinary” life that teemed in his garden of Down House where there was
ivy stalking through stems of seeding
blue-bells, gathering for a leap
into a likely tree.
There follow a series of beautiful, heart warming poems to lift the spirit, as we see anew, through the precision of the poet’s vision and language, sundew, kestrels, spiders, daddy long-legs and many other creatures and plants.
Perhaps it arises from the influence of the harsh era of Knox, but I sense that the ruthlessness of nature is more readily apparent than in previous volumes, as foxes gnaw carrion, moles have poisonous bites and
A heron shakes
its head in a bright rain
swallows. You watch
This last quotation also illustrates the occasional pleasure Marsh gives us by playing with the visual shape of the lines; never as a mere indulgence but to match his subject: the swirl of whirligig beetles, the flicker of reflections or the hammer-blows of Knox’s logic.
All through this collection we can hear the song of birds. There’s a sudden scraitch of gulls in Wishart’s ears as he is led to execution at
Swifts scream when made homeless by the destruction of the abbeys. When
Kepler’s mother outfaces her interrogators and emerges into the sun she hears sparrows are chirping. In Darwin’s garden fledgling Magpies squeal like damaged
rabbits. In his Marsh’s own garden April
shimmies through pollen and song.
In the final section of the book the poems become personal reflections, on private family moments but all with a universal application. Here is
The girl that I married now a woman
in a crowd.
This takes place at an Eco Demo, when Marsh, in a direct link to his objections to Knox, confesses that
Slogans make me bristle.
We also meet the man in the next bed in hospital
Worked thirty years as a miner,
smoked like a chimney. His lungs seemed
almost solid, his coughs heaving
in their Iron Maiden. I lay wincing,
dragged out of shallow dozes.
There are affectionate memories of loved ones now passed away –and again we hear the song of birds: the twitting flight of greenfinches or pewits tumbling in a wind. The birth of his youngest grandchild was also marked by a gust of jackdaws.
There are ninety-three poems in this collection, and the editor would not print my review if I referred to them all. If you have enjoyed Henry Marsh’s previous collection you will enjoy this one, and find greater depths as he tackles tougher themes and as the body of his work is enlarged. For those who come new to his writing, prepare to be transported by short, beautiful and neatly precise words to South Uist, to the lanes around Loanhead, to the life of verges and hedgerows, and to the harsh world of the old patriarch.
Many themes and images recur across the book, and more will be found as you track back and forth. For all the blinkered intolerance of Knox’s preaching, nevertheless he helped make
Scotland what it has been
And Reid, Davy Hume –
the voyagers – set sail
from your Promised Land?
For all that, however, our eye is caught by the judgement of Bunty Wallace wi clorty wains:
Priest or meenister – wha
Gies a tinker’s curse?
If you know anyone who loves wild nature, or cares about
complexities, or who wants to read some of the best of Scottish new writing,
what better gift could there be?